刊物属性
  • 刊物名称:校园英语
  • 国内刊号:CN 13-1298/G4
  • 国际刊号:ISSN 1009-6426
  • 邮发代号: 18-116
  • 数据库收录:中国知网
  • 投稿邮箱:
      tougao@xiaoyuanyingyu.com
  • 时间:2019-06-29 来源:校园英语杂志社

    作者:张素云
      【摘要】初中英语语法教学由历史的过度重视,到现今的比较淡化,,一直困扰着初中英语课堂教学。如何实现语法教学的有效性,笔者结合网络研修与教学实例,两句话归结有效语法教学:“情景交际生主体,发现总结加活用”,与同仁共享。
      【关键词】有效;情境感知;交际体验;创新应用;发现归纳
      【作者简介】张素云,保定市徐水区教育局。
      初中英语语法的有效教学指教师有效地教,学生有效地学。落实语法教学的“双有效”教师要采用情境法,结合交际法,创新活动,学生做主体,积极思维,探究发现、归纳总结、拓展活用。
      一、巧用情境,感知语法
      意义先行原则倡导创设真实而有意义的情境,在情境中感知语法。付学军老师曾借助动作和抹布创设情境,她用抹布擦门、擦桌子,边擦边说:“I am cleaning the window/ door/desk.” 演示现在进行时之后又分别演示了“I am going to clean the window / door/desk. I am cleaning the  window/door/desk. I have cleaned the window/door/desk. I clean the window/door/desk every day.”学生在情境中感知语法,不经意中记住不同时态的区别和特点,实现语法的有效教学。
      二、 情境交际,体验语法
      有效的语法教学不应孤句练习,而应在交际活动中将零碎的语法点和真实语境相结合,在情境交际中体验语法。以现在完成时为例,谈情境交际、过程体验:
      T: I am a teacher. I started teaching English 25years ago. Now I’m still teaching English. So when did I start teaching English? S1: You started teaching English in 1994.
      T: Yes. I’ve taught English for 25 years/since 25 years ago. I’ve been an English teacher for 25 years. (Bb) What about my classmate? Guess. S2:She has been an English teacher for 25 years, too. (Bb)
      T: Smart! So my classmate has taught since 25 years ago, too.(Bb) Now in groups. How long have you been a student? When did you start learning English? How long have you learned English?
      通过交流教与学英语的情况,学生体验现在完成时用法与构成以及不同方式表相同语意。
      三、 创新活动,应用语法
      教师采用创新活动,学生应用语法。以PEP Go For It Grade9 Unit2的宾语从句为例,学生主体找该单元宾语从句、观察、发现、总结规律、展示传话游戏。该活动以万圣节pumpkin为切入点,每生两句话,从第二人开始须用宾语从句传上一学生意思,且给下一人提供从句内容。如:S1:“This is a pumpkin. What did I say?”S2:“You said that was a pumpkin. Do she like the pumpkin?”S3:“He asked whether she liked the pumpkin. When did she buy the pumpkin?” S4:“I wonder when she bought the pumpkin. Do you know?”S5:“I don’t know when she bought the pumpkin. Why did she buy the pumpkin? ” S6:“I think she bought the pumpkin for Halloween. I guess you love the pumpkin too.”
      教師创新语法巩固活动,学生在传话和问答中有趣有效地应用了宾语从句。
      四、发现规律,总结归纳
      无论情境交际还是活动参与,学生应是主体,学生主动观察、感知体验和思考、经历学习过程、发现语法结构特征、总结语言规律。
      以“情境交际、体验语法”中板书(Bb)为例:可引导学生发现板书句子共同特点:has /have + Ved(特殊或一般变化),追问:Has the teacher’s classmate taught for _____years? Yes, she has. / No, she hasn’t. She hasn’t taught for so long. Has your friend learned English for _____ years? Yes, she/he has. No, he/she hasn’t。总结出一般疑问句可将has/have 提前,肯否定简略回答分别为Yes,主语人代+has/have; No, 主语人称+hasn’t/haven’t。再由否定回答引出否定句。最后通过肯定句质疑提问发现并总结特殊疑问句的规律。
      五、联系生活, 拓展活用
      教师将教学内容与实际生活相联系,设计不同层级任务。学生通过真实、半真实的交际活动把语法应用于语境,在贴近生活的实践活动中拓展活用语法,真正实现用英语做事。以一般现在时为例,由单句接龙描述教室、同学到两人对话再到小组多人互动交流家庭成员、特征及喜好,活动方式和内容都有拓展,并在活动中适时适度地拓展立德树人总目标。