刊物属性
  • 刊物名称:校园英语
  • 国内刊号:CN 13-1298/G4
  • 国际刊号:ISSN 1009-6426
  • 邮发代号: 18-116
  • 数据库收录:中国知网
  • 投稿邮箱:
      tougao@xiaoyuanyingyu.com
  • 时间:2019-10-27 来源:校园英语杂志社

    作者:赵彤艳
      【摘要】 在学习英语时,我们都知道使用谓语动词时要注意该谓语动作发生的时间和该谓语动作和主语的关系,即要注意时态和语态,其中语态包括主动语态和被动语态。这一语法现象类似汉语里把字句和被字句。
      【关键词】 主动语态;被动语态;宾语
      【作者简介】赵彤艳(1971-),女,山西畜牧兽医学校,英语教师,本科。
      被动语态句在英语中是一种常见的句式表达,下面就其意义,构成,用法进行阐述。
      一、被动语态的意义
      1.不知道或没有必要说出动作的发出者。
      Eg :Basketball is played in the world.
      The room has not been cleaned for days.
      2.需要强调或突出动作的承受着而不是发出者时。
      eg: Tom was praised by his teacher yesterday.
      All the students are encouraged to use the computers correctly.
      3.报纸,杂志文章标题或广告中。
      eg: Volunteers Wanted!
      Eighty-Year-old man cheated.
      二、被动语态的构成
      被动语态由“助动词be+过去分词”构成。其中助动词be随着主语的人称,数和句子的时态,语气的不同而发生变化,常见以下形式:
      一般现在时: am/ is/ are +done一般过去时:was/ were + done.
      一般将来时: will be +done过去将来时:  would be done.
      现在进行时: is/ am/ are +being done过去进行时: was /were + being done.
      将来进行时: will be being + done现在完成时: have/ has been+ done.
      过去完成时: had been + done 将来完成时: will have been + done.
      eg: 1. The room is cleaned every day.  2. The room was cleaned yesterday.
      3. The room will be cleaned tomorrow. 4. The room is being cleaned now.
      5. The room has been cleaned. 6. The room had been cleaned before the man arrived here.
      三、被动语态的用法
      1.含有双宾语的被动语态。有些动词作谓语后可带双宾语,一个表人的宾语,称为间接宾语;一个表事物的宾语,称为直接宾语。含有双宾语的主动结构变为被动结构时,可以有两种方法将该主动句变为被动句。第一种,将表人的间接宾语变为被动句的主语,第二种,将表事物的直接宾语变为被动句的主语时,间接宾语前应有介词to或for.
      eg: 主动句 :He gave me a pen.
      被动句: I was given a pen或 A pen was given to me.
      2.含有复合宾语的被动语态。 有些动词如feel, find, think, consider, believe, make, keep, call等后跟复合宾语(宾语+补语),含有复合宾语的主动句变为被动句时,将主动语态句中宾语变为被动句的主语,宾语补足语不变,此刻宾语补足语变为主语补足语,常作宾补的有名词,形容词,,分词,动词不定式。
      eg:主动句  I think the book interesting.
      被動句 The book is thought interesting.
      3. 含有宾语从句的被动语态。含有宾语从句时变被动语态句有两种方法:
      用it 作被动句的形式主语,宾语从句成为主语从句。
      Eg: People said that the man was very rich. (主动句)
      It was said that the man was very rich.(被动句)
      用宾语从句里的主语作为被动句的主语,即“主语+ be + 过去分词+todo/be。
      Eg:  People said that the man was very rich. (主动句)
      The man was said to be very rich.(被动句)
      4.含有情态动词的被动语态。
      情态动词+be +及物动词的过去分词。
      I can clean the room (主动句).
      The room can be cleaned by me (被动句).
      5.短语动词的被动语态。
      有些不及物动词+介词形成短语动词,相当于及物动词,也可以有被动语态形式,但需注意变为被动语态时不可丢掉构成短语动词的介词。
      Eg: They are talking about the topic. (主动句)
      The topic is being talked about.  (被动句不能丢掉about)
      四、结束语
      总之,通过对被动语态这一语法结构进行分析,有利于促进英语教学中对语法学习的理解和认识。