刊物属性
  • 刊物名称:校园英语
  • 国内刊号:CN 13-1298/G4
  • 国际刊号:ISSN 1009-6426
  • 邮发代号: 18-116
  • 数据库收录:中国知网
  • 投稿邮箱:
      tougao@xiaoyuanyingyu.com
  • 时间:2019-11-17 来源:校园英语杂志社

    作者:梁伟英
      摘 要:高中英语有效阅读教学的目的在于使学生通过英语阅读,在发展语言能力、思维能力、想象能力和创新学习能力的同时,逐步树立正确的人生观、价值观和世界观,同时提高学生的各种素养。因此,开设英语文学欣赏选修课的目的是提高阅读的质量和速度,从而解放学生的心灵和智慧,让学生的表现力、想象力和创造力都尽情地释放出来,同时让学生用自己的语言去尽量流利地表达自己的思想见解。本文结合英语文学欣赏选修课教学实践,探讨了有效提高阅读教学实效的问题。
      关键词:阅读实效;文学欣赏;选修课;策略方法
      一、问题缘起
      高中生对英语教材中的诗歌单元和戏剧单元都表现出了浓厚的学习兴趣和极大的学习热情,他们乐于朗诵诗歌和表演课本剧。然而,高中课本中英语文学所占的比重远远地不能满足学生们的需求。因此,把英语文学作为校本选修课来开设是十分有必要的。这有利于促进全人教育,培养学生阅读兴趣,有效提高学生的综合语言运用能力、文化意识和审美能力,以塑造学生健全的人格,促进学生的全面发展。
      综观当前英语阅读教学,还不同程度存在着以下问题:一是忽视学生的主体参与,教师独霸课堂,以教师的分析代替学生的欣赏;二是拆解作品语言,将一篇美文分解成一个个等待语法分析的句子;三是以封闭式的标准化训练代替开放性的多元化解读;四是“只见树木,不见森林”,只进行段落的分析,不注意全文的把握;五是追求表面上的热闹与花样上的翻新,忽视文学教育的基本规律和科学内涵,务虚不务实。笔者以教学文学欣赏选修课“the Necklace”为例探讨促进有效提高阅读教学实效性的问题。
      二、以文学欣赏课“the Necklace”为例探析有效阅读教学
      开展英语文学欣赏选修课的目的是解放学生的心灵和智慧。我们应该这样定位教学目的:在文学欣赏教学中解放人的心灵和智慧,让学生的表现力、想象力和创造力都尽情地释放出来,同时让他们用自己的语言去尽量流利地表达自己的思想,笔者在教“the Necklace”一文时,着重从两方面进行,一是引导学生理性思考,不受既定结论的影响,见仁见智,自由评说;二是鼓励学生大胆想象,展开思维的翅膀。
      1.复述课文情节,整体把握全文
      先让学生在座位上七嘴八舌地复述课文情节(课前已布置过自读)。这种“热启动”既是为了创设良好的英语课堂氛围,,也为了使学生一开始就动口、动脑,进入学习状态,使自己“胸有成文”,为下面的讨论做好知识准备。
      2.进行还原性赏析,领会作者原意
      复述之后,让学生聚焦“还原性目标”,引导学生积极进行理性思考。还原性目标即通过作品语言领会作者的用意。作者可能“用意十分,下语三分”,读者要领悟到另外七分用意,才能还原作者的用意和作品的原貌。要做到这一点,可以引导学生着重从两种描写入手,一是心理描写,二是动作描写。
      心理描写方面重点赏析Mathilde在借项链前与后的心理活动。让学生带着三个问题(1.What did Mathilde think after she got the news that she and her husband had been invited to the ball? 2. What did Mathilde imagine to happen at the ball? 3.How did she feel after she lost the necklace?)去静听这篇文章的配乐朗诵(配上富有温馨情调的钢琴曲,在多媒体教室播放),同学们边听边展开想象,让主人公的种种“美梦”和“噩梦”场景活现在自己的脑海中。同学梦先自己讨论,之后再请一两个小组的条表发言。
      动作描写方面则重点赏析Mathilde“借项链”一节。猜测她们两人之间会发生怎样的对话和动作。欣赏品味时笔者让同学们四人一组进行角色扮演,并给他们较充分的时间。最后让同学们自由到讲台前,两个同学表演,另外两个进行描述,发言力求完整,教师不做插话。
      同学的发言大意如下:When Mathilde was trying on the necklaces, she did n’t know what to choose and what to give up, keeping on asking:“Is there anything else?”学生的描述让读者充分感觉到一个贫穷又对珠宝情有独钟的妇女见到日思夜想的珠宝首饰时特有的激动、惊喜。这种激动与惊喜绝不亚于一个在沙漠中行多日快要渴死的人突然见到一泓清泉时的心情。When she found the beautiful necklace in the green box, she was so excited that she could found her heart nearly jumped out of her throat. Her hands were shaking with the necklace in them. She was both excited shaking with the necklace in them. She was both excited and nervous. She was excited because she kept sight of such a marvelous necklace; She was nervous because she worried that her friend would refuse her. Then she wore the necklace round her neck, and went to a mirror. She was pinned in front of the mirror for a long time. She found herself was perfectly charming with the necklace on. Was it really herself? It’s unbelievable and that’s what she was longing for.通过这位学生的描述,一个爱慕虚荣的小资产阶级妇女形象变得栩栩如生了。Then she started to open her mouth, hesitatingly and anxiously. She was hesitating because she was worried that she could n’t get it. She was anxious because she was in urgent need of it. Then she asked:“Can you lend me this one? Only this one!”在这里“only this one”必须重读,才能体现她此时的心情。“this one”强调自己对这串项链情有独钟;“only”表明自己要求不高,别无它求。她如此迟疑而焦急,如此讲究问话“艺术”,是担心对方不借给她。However, her friend answered without thinking:“Of course!” Mathilde was so excited that she jumped and ran to embrace her friend’s neck, kissed her and said “Thank you”in a hurry and ran away.这些学生真不愧是得到莫泊桑真传的语言高手,场景不大,着墨不多,却把Mathilde的性格刻画得入木三分。